Intensive Course in Gender-Sensitive Macroeconomic Modeling for Policy Analysis

Day 2: Demographic Change and Demand for Care

Session 2.1 Gender Relations in Labor Markets

Instructor: Paula Herrera-Idárraga


  1. Quick overview of the changing conditions of the labor market: the decline of unions, rise of precarious jobs (part-time, temporary, short term), and deterioration of working conditions. (Lack of social security, unemployment benefits, informal employment, and income insecurity).
  2. Overview of some gender gaps in participation in the labor force, paid and unpaid employment, and wages.
  3. Sectorial and occupational gender segregation.

This session addresses the following questions: Do men and women differ in most labor market outcomes, and why is the gender gap in these areas persistent? We will frame the questions in a labor market context of slow productivity growth, intensification of global competition, the decline in workers’ bargaining power, and uncertainty in economic conditions described by Benería, Gnseli. and Floro (2016). Despite important recent gains, substantial differences between men and women remain concerning labor market outcomes. Women workers tend to prevail in low pay sectors/occupations and insecure forms of jobs, such as informal ones. The learning objective is to identify and learn about gender inequalities in labor markets. 

Main Readings

Benería, L., Gnseli, B. and Floro, M. (2016). “Labor Market under Globalization” in Gender, Development and Globalization: Economics As If All People Mattered. Routledge. Ch 4.

International Labor Organization. 2017. World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for Women.Available at: WCMS_619577/lang--en/index.htm. 

Supplementary Readings

Bergmann, B. 1974. "Occupational Segregation, Wages and Profits When Employers Discriminate by Race or Sex," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 1(2): 103-110.

England, P., Budig, M., & Folbre, N. (2002). “Wages of Virtue: The Relative Pay of Care Work.” Social Problems, 49(4): 455-473. DOI: 10.1525/sp.2002.49.4.455 

Session 2.2 Demographic and Economic Change and Demand for Care

Instructor: Nancy Folbre


  1. Integrating Demographics and Economics
  2. Contours of Demographic Change
  3. Demographic Dividends and Disadvantages
  4. Dependency Ratios and Social Costs 

Main Reading

King, Elizabeth M., Hannah L. Randolph, Maria S. Floro, and Jooyeoun Suh. Demographic, health, and economic transitions and the future care burden.World Development 140 (2021): 1053-71. 

Supplementary Reading

Mason, Andrew, and Sang-Hyop Lee. Macroeconomic Impacts and Policies in Aging Societies.Aging Societies (2019).