REFLECTIONS ON ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE, WOMEN’S TIME ALLOCATION, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
Despite notable progress in recent decades (including in primary school enrolment and access to the political system), gender gaps remain pervasive in rich and poor countries alike. In many developing economies, gaps in secondary and tertiary education, access to finance and health care, labor force participation, formal sector employment, entrepreneurship, and earnings, remain large.
REFLECTIONS ON MICROFINANCE AND THE CARE ECONOMY
With rollback of the developmental state under the neoliberal policy regime, financial inclusion has come to be adopted as a developmental strategy. Micro-credit schemes, which were initially promoted as tools for gender-empowerment and poverty alleviation, have in the process become increasingly absorbed within the sphere of mainstream private finance.
HOW I LEARNED TO LOVE MACRO
I have despised macroeconomics–even relatively innovative, post-Keynesian, gender-infused versions—for many years, for two big reasons. First, macro remains largely focused on an output variable, Gross Domestic Product, that systematically mismeasures the total value of material goods and services produced.
DIGITAL FORUM ON REOPENING LONG ISLAND AND BUILDING A FAIR ECONOMY: CARE WORK IN THE COVID CRISIS
Earlier this month, the Hofstra Labor Studies and the Center for the Study of Labor and Democracy in collaboration with Long Island Jobs with Justice and A.L.L.O.W. (Advancing Local Leadership Opportunities for Women) conducted a virtual forum addressing care work in the context of COVID-19.
COVID-19 AND THE CARE ECONOMY: UN WOMEN CALLS FOR IMMEDIATE ACTION AND STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION FOR A GENDER-RESPONSIVE RECOVERY
A recent brief from UN Women presents emerging evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on the care economy.
Evidence suggests that the rising demand for care in the context of the COVID-19 crisis and response will likely deepen already existing inequalities in the gender division of labor, placing a disproportionate burden on women and girls.
THE TRUE COST OF CAREGIVING: AN ASPEN INSTITUTE DIGITAL DISCUSSION
Even in a typical year, U.S. households are estimated to experience $31.9 billion in lost wages as a result of inadequate childcare and paid leave. Roughly 1 in 5 people living in the U.S. today incur caregiving expenses, and the need for care work is experienced in nearly every household at least once.
INEQUALITIES IN ACCESS TO U.S. CARE SERVICES
In the U.S., states and localities are beginning to ease social distancing policies resulting from the pandemic. With many workplaces calling Americans to return to work, the nation’s care services system, what was already broken, is now in dire need of repair or replace.
THE COVID-19 CARE PENALTY
In the U.S., as elsewhere, essential workers have been rightly praised for their willingness to take on additional risk and stress. Their commitment to helping patients, students, and customers face-to-face went beyond the ordinary requirements of earning a paycheck. Yet some essential workers faced more serious risks of infection than others, and differences in pay among them were also significant.
GENDER EQUALITY WORKS FOR EVERYONE
In an interview with the Institute for New Economic Thinking, Care Work and the Economy lead researcher for the Rethinking Macroeconomics group Elissa Braunstein of Colorado State University explores social reproduction from a macroeconomic perspective. She explains how processes of economic growth need labor, both paid and unpaid, as an input; yet macroeconomists almost never treat labor as something that is being produced.
FRONTLINE WORKERS IN THE U.S
A recent report on Basic Demographic Profile of Workers in U.S. Frontline Industries by the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) looks at six broad industries, employing grocery store clerks, warehouse workers, bus drivers, and care workers – including nurses, care workers at child care and residential care facilities, as well as household and community service workers
UNPAID WORK, ANIMATED
About half of all the time devoted to work in the U.S. is devoted to unpaid work in the home. The Institute for New Economic Thinking has created an adorable animation of some comments I made in an interview with them on this topic a while back.
THE UNPAID CARE WORK AND THE LABOR MARKET: AN ANALYSIS OF TIME USE DATA BASED ON THE LATEST WORLD COMPILATION OF TIME-USE SURVEYS
How much time do people spend on doing paid and unpaid care work? How do women and men spend their time differently on unpaid care work? Are there any differences in time use among the regions? How do socioeconomic factors influence people’s choices to do paid and unpaid care work?
UN WOMEN: COVID-19 AND THE CRISIS OF THE CARE ECONOMY
In a recent UN Women blog post, Silke Staab explores ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic that has swept the globe is further compounding the risk and strain put upon women in the care economy – both paid and unpaid.
Women comprise 70% of health workers globally and even higher shares of care-related occupations such as nursing, midwifery and community health work, which all require close contact with patients.
LESSONS TO DRAW FROM COUNTRIES WITH LONG-TERM CARE (LTC) SYSTEMS
By Ito Peng
Japan, Korea and Germany introduced universal, mandatory public long-term care insurance (LTCI) as their populations began to age. LTCI is a social insurance program that covers the cost of care in case people need assistance to manage their daily living activities.
By Nancy Folbre
If there was ever a time we urgently needed to know more about time use, that time has come. The Covid-19 pandemic utterly changed daily rhythms for many sequestered households and the “opening up” process closed down some old routines. I’ve done extensive work with time use data, have been in touch with several people/groups trying to measure the impact of the pandemic, and am trying to follow results being reported in other research.
A GENDER LENS ON COVID-19: INVESTING IN NURSES AND OTHER FRONTLINE HEALTH WORKERS TO IMPROVE HEALTH SYSTEMS
Worldwide, women make up anywhere from 65 percent (Africa) to 86 percent (Americas) of the nursing workforce. Their jobs are critical to the health, safety, and security of communities on any given day, and particularly in times of a global pandemic.
HOW WILL COVID-19 AFFECT WOMEN AND GIRLS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES?
By David Evans
Policymakers should be thinking—and worried—about how COVID-19 is expected to disproportionately affect women and girls. Gender inequality can come into even starker focus in the context of health emergencies. With COVID-19 continuing to spread, what do we see so far—and what can we expect in the future—in terms of the impacts on women and girls?
THE HOMEMADE VALUE-ADDED STABILIZER
By Nancy Folbre
“Shelter in place” mandates in the early stages of the U.S. Covid-19 pandemic required many people to stay home, cook their own meals, school their own children, and entertain themselves. Unpaid work served not only as a social safety net, but also as an automatic stabilizer. While it didn’t dampen fluctuations in official Gross Domestic Product, as did unemployment insurance, it clearly helped stabilize consumption.
PLAYING THE LONG GAME: HOW A GENDER LENS CAN MITIGATE HARM CAUSED BY PANDEMICS
When crisis hits, longer-term thinking can easily, and understandably, be cast as a distraction or a luxury—even when it relates to tackling critical issues like gender inequality, climate change, or extreme poverty.
INVISIBLE FRONTLINERS: MIGRANT CARE WORKERS IN THE TIME OF COVID-19
By Amy King-Dejardin
The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed fault lines in national healthcare and social protection systems that have made many countries – developed as well as developing – unable to quickly and efficiently deal with this new health crisis and its disastrous consequences on jobs and incomes.
“BEING AT HOME” IS NOT FREE – MAKING INFORMAL CARE PROVISION VISIBLE AND PROVIDING SUPPORT DURING THE PANDEMIC
By Emiko Ochiai
The Japanese Government responded to the COVID 19 crisis by declaring a state of emergency and announcing an economic stimulus of 108 trillion yen, 6 trillion of which is allocated to households and small to midsized businesses. However, care work is not mentioned in this state of emergency. In the face of this pandemic, the government should be taking into account the increased burden of home care that is brought on in addition to the concerns regarding the collapse of medical care.
THOSE UNPROTECTED BY THE “ECONOMIC STABILITY SHIELD”
This brief note raises two issues: First, the widening of gender inequalities in unpaid care work and second, the potential gendered outcomes of rising formal and informal unemployment in the affected sectors in Turkey.
COVID-19 IS TESTING THE NORM: GENDER DYNAMICS AND CARE IN THE MIDST OF THE PANDEMIC
The COVID-19 crisis has upended lives around the world. It has forced cities and countries to enforce lockdown and social distancing regulations. Schools and businesses are closed and people are told to self-isolate, stay home, telework (if your job allows), to not go out except to get essential things, and care for each other but in distance.
ARE WE ALL CAREWORKERS NOW?
By Nancy Folbre
Who, exactly, are care workers, other than the people we need most right now, as the COVID-19 pandemic overlays the division of labor with a new division of risk?
A TIME FOR REFLECTION ON CARE
By Maria Floro
The world outside my study is churning and whirling… as it is engulfed with the fast-evolving health situations in communities around the globe. There are many unknowns about the
COVID-19 illness that has spread rapidly in every continent and the presence of uncertainty—big time—has rattled governments, shaken markets, and upended our daily routines, to say the least.
UPDATE: INTENSIVE COURSE IN GENDER-SENSITIVE MACROECONOMIC MODELING FOR POLICY ANALYSIS
The Intensive Course in Gender-Sensitive Macroeconomic Modeling for Policy Analysis to be held at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College (Blithewood, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY) in July 2020 has been postponed to July 2021.
STAKEHOLDERS COME TOGETHER IN SOUTH KOREA TO DISCUSS CARE WORK & SOCIAL INCLUSION
On October 29, 2019, the Care Work and the Economy Project (CWE-GAM) and its partner in South Korea the Center for Transnational Migration and Social Inclusion (CMTS), which was officially launched in August of this year under the Institute of International Affairs at SNU GSIS, hosted an international conference on “Values of Care Work and Social Inclusion.” Five other institutions joined efforts to lend generous support for this event, including Open Society Foundations and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
A GENDERED SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX FOR SOUTH KOREA
A social accounting matrix (SAM) is an economy-wide consistent representation of the payments in an economy, linking production, primary factors, and institutions (the latter often split into households, government, and the rest of the world).
GLIMPSE OF FAMILY CAREGIVERS’ CONTEXT: ACTUAL TIME VS. DESIRED TIME FOR CARE
Attitudes towards family care are changing. Only 27% of Koreans surveyed in 2018 agreed that the family is responsible for elderly family member care. As for population aging, the middle age group of Korean society is becoming a true “Sandwiched Generation” (supporting both unmarried children and elderly parents) due to the longevity increase among elderly parents and postponement of marriage among the young generation.
FAMILY CAREGIVERS’ ELDER CARE: UNDERSTANDING THEIR HARD TIME AND CARE BURDEN
In response to the imminent aging problem in South Korea, the National Long-Term Care Insurance (NLTCI) system was introduced in 2008. The goal of the NLTCI was to give support to the families who are taking care of their elderly.
CAREGIVING ACTIVITIES IN SOUTH KOREA: AN ANALYSIS OF 2018 CARE WORK FAMILY SURVEYS ON CHILDCARE AND ELDERCARE
The rise of the care crisis in South Korea has evolved with Korea’s demographic shifts, increasing female workforce participation, and changes in the norms and values of family and care over previous decades. Childcare and eldercare, once regarded as women’s typical role within the family, are now gaining more social recognition in the public realm.
MEASURING THE OVERALL STRAIN OF CAREGIVING: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROAC
Providing care for others, especially for the frail elderly and young children, is one of the most important forms of human work that sustains our existence. However, caregiving is also often challenging and strenuous. Many informal caregivers are known to suffer negative physical, emotional, and social outcomes, and are at risk of losing their own health and well-being.
POLICY ANALYSIS IN A MACROECONOMIC MODEL OF SOCIAL REPRODUCTION
Since the 1990s, unpaid work and care have garnered increasing academic attention, creating the emerging fields of the economics of unpaid work and the study of “the care economy.” Most of the earlier work was oriented toward microeconomics, focusing on issues such as the household division of labor, subsistence production in developing countries, the substitution between non-market and market goods and services in households, and the role of caring motivations in sectors of the labor market in developed and developing countries.
EXTENDING THE CWE-GAM WORK BEYOND 2020: PARTNER INSTITUTION SNU LAUNCHES THE NEW CENTRE FOR TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION IN SOUTH KOREA
The Care Work and the Economy (CWE-GAM) Project partner Seoul National University (SNU) launched the new Centre for Transnational Migration and Socia Inclusion this September. The Centre hopes to ensure that the research and analysis undertaken on care work and the relationships developed with advocacy groups and policymakers by the CWE-GAM Project team in Seoul will lead to long-lasting impacts in the country.
INFORMAL CAREGIVING, FAMILY POWER DYNAMICS, AND LABOR MARKET RIGIDITIES
A growing concern in many countries is an aging population and an increase in the number of elderly in need of long-term care (LTC). However, the economic and welfare implications of LTC provision remain relatively understudied. One of the primary factors which complicate welfare analysis is that a bulk of elderly care is provided by family members.
IMPACT OF INVESTING IN SOCIAL CARE ON EMPLOYMENT GENERATION, TIME- AND INCOME-POVERTY AND GENDER GAPS: A MACRO-MICRO POLICY SIMULATION FOR TURKEY
Feminist economists have long emphasized the recognition, reduction and redistribution of unpaid care work (the so-called 3R strategy) as a primary policy intervention towards closing of the gender economic gaps. Investing in a social care infrastructure is an important component of the 3R strategy.
CWE RESEARCH TEAM PRESENTS PROTOTYPE MODEL OF THE CARE ECONOMY AT CONFERENCE IN COLOMBIA
By Hans Lofgren
June 13-15, I attended the 21st Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, held in Cartagena, Colombia, to present and discuss a draft of an early project output, titled “Care in an Aging East Asian Economy: Simulating the impacts of policies on gender roles, labor markets, and household welfare” and coauthored with two CWE Researcher colleagues, Marzia Fontana and Kijong Kim.
THE EFFECTS OF PUBLIC SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND GENDER EQUALITY ON OUTPUT AND EMPLOYMENT: THE CASE OF SOUTH KOREA
According to the Global Gender Gap Index of the World Economic Forum (2018), South Korea is one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in terms of “Economic Participation and Opportunity” (124th out of 149 countries) as of 2018. The Global Gender Gap Index also shows that South Korea ranks 88th in terms of female labor force participation and 121st in terms of gender wage equality for similar work.
OPTIONS FOR MODELING THE DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACT OF CARE POLICIES USING A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM (CGE) FRAMEWORK
The importance of public investment and adequate care policies for gender equality has come to the forefront of the policy agenda in recent years. The Sustainable Development Goals framework for the first time explicitly recognizes the unequal distribution of unpaid domestic work and care as main source of gender inequality.
THE PROVISION OF ELDERLY CARE AND THE MACROECONOMY
The dramatic increase in life expectancy in most developed and developing countries over the last few decades has led to renewed discussions around elderly care policy options, and the debates are expected to intensify as the ratio of elderly to working-age adults continues to rise. According to United Nations, the share of people aged 60 years or over is growing faster than all younger age groups.
50 RESEARCHERS COME TOGETHER FOR 2019 ANNUAL MEETING
he Care Work and the Economy (CWE-GAM) held its 2nd Annual Meeting in Glasgow, Scotland on June 30-July 2, 2019. The network of 50 researchers and stakeholders convened to discuss the project’s progress since its 2018 Annual Meeting in Berlin.
THE PROGRESSION OF SOUTH KOREA’S CHILDCARE MODEL
South Korea’s childcare model started developing when the Child Welfare Act (the Act) was first introduced in 1962. Prior to that, no solid policy for childcare existed, as the country was in a period of political and social turmoil after the Korean war (1950-1953). Thanks to the Act, several nursery facilities were built during this period with foreign assistance, although with the narrow objective of relieving the poor and supporting numerous orphans who lost their parents during the war (Kang, 2002).
No researchers or staff found